This research was made possible by a generous grant from the Irish Research Council for the Humanities and Social Sciences.
Co.Cork (14 entries, 1 of which names no families)
1. Kilbrittan (list compiled at ICA meeting, Kilbrittan Guild, March 1953) Surname “Winter Quarters”
Sheridan, Ryan Limerick, also give specific camp locations in
Bantry, Bandon and Dunmanway
O’Callaghan and Foley Bandon
(NOTE that some families are mentioned in tandem, as closely associated).
2. Baile na Caisleán
4. [none named]
5. Dunhallow, Knocknagree
10. Gleann na Phreacháin (GnP)
Butler and with the latter [sic] a section of the So-hos [sic]. Both of these hail from Tipperary.”
11. Barra Mór (BM)
Driscoll Both “confined to Co. Cork” and particularly
McCarthy East and Mid Cork
Hogan In Cork City. Visiting from Limerick. also found in W. Waterford (= bordering with Co. Cork)
Driscoll Most numerous. E & Mid-Cork
Leary Cork City
Hogan Tallow, W Waterford
(Writer originally from Ennis Co. Clare)
All 3 intermarried/related, mostly “settled” around this locality. Also Sheridan
(Note: “comparatively recently” a man named Jenkins married into the Gradys.)
Re: Ennis (from memory)
Ward from Co. Galway, tinsmiths
Casey from SE Clare/Limerick, tinsmiths
Sheridan originally from Westmeath. Biggest group. Horse doctors
Second hand information from named informants:
Ward, Sheridan Tuam, Co.Galway
Coffee, Harrington, McCarthy, Ford Killarney
Sheridan (wife née Hegarty)
Total 20 names. O’Driscoll and Sheridan are in joint first place at 8 mentions each; McCarthy in second place with five; Coffey and O’Brien get three each; 4 other names ( Butler, Flynn, Hogan and Quilligan) are each mentioned twice and the remaining 12 names are all one-offs.
Co.Kerry (9 entries, 1 of which names no families)
1. Corca Duibhne
Coffey “local” respondent also “knows of” Sheridans “hailing from” Limerick – presumably occasional visitors.
2. Corca Duibhne again
Coffey “dream tincéirí” (literally, “a crowd of tinkers” – occupational description)
Sheridan deal in horses
O’Brien and Flynn Tralee is “headquarters” for these 2 families
Coffey Dingle peninsula
Sheridan base = Abbeyfeale Co. Limerick. An“offshoot” make Tralee their HQ. Sheridans’ Glen just outside Castleisland attests Kerry presence ( Sheridan = exclusively Traveller name in Kerry).
Coffey and O’Brien
Carthy Shows up in an anecdote from years past
6. Kenmare No permanent presence. No surnames given.
O’Driscoll aka Brien’s O’Driscoll
O’Brien and Sheridan both Limerick, come to Kerry for fairs
Total 8 surnames. Coffey – mentioned by every informant who names even one family for the county – is dominant, withSheridan and O’Brien joint second with four mentions each. The remaining 5 surnames are all one-offs.
Co.Limerick (3 entries)
O’Brien, Coffee West Limerick, North Cork, Newmarket
Sheridan Rathkeale = HQ
McDonagh Visit from Galway & Mayo
Quilligan, Reilly, Hourigan, Carty, Gammel Croom is their “domain”
Flynn No venue
Donoghue No venue
Casey No venue
Sheridan No venue
O’Brien Mostly West Limerick, North Kerry
Faulkner Clare. Also frequent Limerick and Kerry
Doherty, Harty East Limerick
McCarthy Insists 2 quite separate families by this name
Whelan “a shady lot” backed by anecdote from “50 years ago, just”
Sullivan Coconut Shy at Fairs
Só-hó A branch of the Donoghues. “have long frequented this district.”
Donoghue, Ward, Driscoll pass through
Gammel family lives at Bruff
FROM MEMORY: NAVAN 50 YEARS EARLIER (turn of century; 76 year old informant moved from Navan to Limerick 50 years ago):
Walsh Mrs Walsh was née Kane
Total 21 surnames, Sheridan the only one mentioned by all three informants. Donoghue, Gammell, and O’Brien are mentioned twice, as is (Mc) Cart(h)y – with one informant insisting that there are two distinct families bearing this name. The remaining 16 surnames are all one-offs.
Note that, while two of the three link the Sheridans to Rathkeale, no list was submitted from that town.
The informant who describes the Só-hós as a branch of the Donoghues mentions the Donoghues separately.
Co.Clare (8 entries)
Carthy, Casey, Sherlock, Molloy Local and seem to have originated locally
Sherlock natives of Ennistymon [see above Ennistymon agrees!]
McDonagh have recently begin to intermarry, are gaining ground
3. Cartloe, Bunratty
Sheridan “of Rathkeale”
4. Cape Caitlin, Bunratty
Delaney Frequent the area. “really family traders”
Carthy, Casey, Faulkner/Fortner [sic] Kilrush
McDonagh Galway, but frequent Clare
No resident Traveller families
Lawrence From Connaught. wife née Caughlan “who belonged to a tribe of itinerant tinkers”
Faulkner “the Faulkners of Kilrush”
Carthy, Casey, Cash “Clonmel is regarded as the home of all three”
Carty, Casey, Fortner (sic) Local
8. Cuil Min, Ennis
Cathasaigh [= Casey]
Ó Dubhshláine [= Delaney]
Faulkner [in English in original]
Total 16 surnames. Casey, mentioned in all 8 entries, is in first place, with Cart(h)y (7 out of 8) a close second. Faulkner (with variant forms Faulkiner and Fortner) is mentioned 5 times. Delaney, McDonagh, Sheridan and Sherlock get two mentions each and the remaining 9 names are all one-offs. Note that several families are claimed as “local”.
Co.Tipperary (8 entries)
McCarthy “changed by local [sic] people to Carty”; intermarries with Donoghue
Donoghue intermarries with McCarthy/Carty
Carty “several Carty families of uncertain relationship” [note, again, insistence that this surname is internally subdivided]
Carty The only Traveller family in the district
Soho Used locally as generic synonym for “tinker”
Carty Always fight with the Reillys
Reilly Always fight with the Cartys
McInerney Former local king [of Travellers]
Ó Tuathaigh [Twohey] “an tsloinne is flúisí orthu” (= the most common surname among them]
MacCarthy “the tinkers of Cashel, Fethard and Killenaule are all MacCarthys”
Delaney Carrick on Suir
Reilly Carrick on Suir
McCarthy “ Cashel City is known as the headquarters of the McCarthy tinkers. There are many families of them here.”
O’Brien, O’Reilly, Delaney Cawley Visiting
8. Gabailín, Cill Fiacla
Carty “Thirty to forty years ago the principal groups [plural!] of tinkers that frequented the district were the Cartys, of which there were two or three different families.”
Reilly Currently common. “There are two groups of Reillys.”
Donoghue Currently common
Sheridan, Delaney, Doyle, McInerney Less frequent visitors
Cawley From Roscommon
Total 13 surnames. (Mc) Carthy, mentioned in seven of the eight Tipperary entries, is most widespread in this county. Delaney is in second place with five mentions; Reilly gets four; Donoghue and Cawley three each, Connors, McInerney and O’Brien two each. The remaining five are one-offs. They include Ó Tuathaigh [Twohey], mentioned exclusively in Nenagh but identified as the biggest family there.
Several entries note that the surname “(Mc)Cart(h)y” is borne by several quite different families, and one says the same for Reilly. The Carthys are linked with both the Donoghues and the Reillys.
While the (Mc)Cart(h)ys are strongly associated with specific places in the county, other families are identified as visitors, including from other counties.
(Two entries, only one of which lists surnames. It is in Irish, and semi-legible)
1. Cill Gobnait
Dúlaidigh ? (Daly)
2. Grange Park
No names given
Co.Kildare (3 entries)
Cash, Ward “visit this area”
3. Monasterevin (note: this entry is misfiled between Meath and Laois sections)
Ten surnames mentioned: Cash and Delaney twice each, the remainder one-offs.
Co.Wicklow (3 entries)
1. Tinahealy(informant born 1872, aged 81 in 1953)
Malone “settled in this country 70 years ago”
Cash, Donovan, Murphy
2. [Location in Wicklow unclear]
3. [Location in Wicklow unclear]
Cash, Connors, Brien
The three entries mention a total of 6 names, all of them one-offs except Cash, noted by all three.
Co.Wexford (3 entries)
O’Connors, O’Brien, Berry
2. [Location in Wexford unclear]
Brien, Cash, Connors, Kelly, Berry, Scott
3. Baile Fada
Berry, (O’) Brien and (O’) Connor(s) are listed by all three entries, and Cash by two. Two of the remaining three “one off” surnames (Kelly and Scott) are not mentioned by any other contributor to the 1953 survey.
Co.Meath (3 entries)
Joyce Curraha and Kilmoon
This informant knew McDonaghs in Leitrim, ca. 1912.
Murray “best known tinker family”
Stokes Tinkers. Mullagh Co. Cavan is their base.
This informant gives the following definitions:
tramps are walking people who beg for alms
tinkers travel on carts
gypsies travel in caravans
p 383 tells the story of the Murphys: the father was a livestock dealer. Both sons learnt tinsmithing, the three traveled and worked together. Have bought a cottage but not yet moved in. No mention of the mother, wives, or anybody’s age.
p 384 contrasts tinkers who “seldom cause trouble” with “non-tinker tribes” – not named!! – “who are a constant danger to property.”
Eight surnames, with a ninth, McDonagh, mentioned as occurring in a different county decades earlier (but not, at the time, in Meath). The (O’)Donovans and Joyces are mentioned twice each. The Murray surname, however common in Kells at the time, was very localised, being mentioned in only one other entry (from neighbouring Cavan).
Co.Laois (1 entry, exact location unclear)
Hutchinson “specialise in chimney sweeping”
Co.Carlow (1 entry, exact location unclear)
Co.Westmeath (5 entries)
[Location in Westmeath unclear; describes “areas in which these families operate” as “Meath, Westmeath, Offaly, Longford, Cavan and up towards the North” without subdividing]
* another Westmeath entry also lists “Keena”, so this is probably not a misprint for “Keenan”, a surname not mentioned even once in the 1953 data
Nevins Westmeath, Offaly, Roscommon
Joyce Westmeath, Offaly, Roscommon
(“fierce battles” fought between Nevinses and Joyces at Umma 2 years ago)
Gavan, Powers Longford Mayo Sligo
Keena [sic] Mullingar
Powers Ballymahon, Abbeyshrule, Athlone
Donohue Ballymahon, Abbeyshrule, Athlone
Leary Ballymahon, Abbeyshrule, Athlone
Casey Ballymahon, Abbeyshrule, Athlone
Casey “from the south”
Joyce one of the 3 “best known clans” “West of the Shannon”. are “said to have come off a wrecked ship”
McDonagh one of the 3 “best known clans” “West of the Shannon”
Ward one of the 3 “best known clans” “West of the Shannon”
Hanafin from Kerry
Power from Waterford. one married a Ward and settled at Strokestown Co. Roscommon; the Powers there descend from him.
O’Leary Limerick chimneysweeps. intermarry with O’Donoghues
O’Donoghue chimneysweeps, intermarry with O’Learys. “about 4 generations back” came from Killoe Co. Longford – evicted. gives details re founding father William.
The following are all local to the Longford-Westmeath-Offaly-Roscommon area, with Ballinasloe their Western limit:
QUOTE: “They are locally called ‘tinkers’. If they have a good number of waggons or caravans, they are ‘gipsies’. Tramps, travellers [sic], beggars always refer to single individuals. We speak of ‘ a beggarman’, ‘beggar-woman’, ‘travelling-man’, ‘tramp-man’, but always ‘the tinkers’.” [In other words, ethnic Travellers are seen as collective, while dropouts are seen as individuals.]
Rhattigan most common
Only one of the five entries for the County Westmeath confines itself to that county. The remainder treat the midlands as a single region within which named Traveller families (some “from” other areas, e.g. the West) “operate”. Of the 26 surnames noted, Gavin/Gavan is the only one listed in all five entries, with Joyce, Power(s), Rhattigan and Ward each mentioned four times, Nevins three, and a further seven surnames (Keena – and not, nota bene, Keenan – Casey, Donohue, Hanafin, Leary, McDonagh and Stokes) with two mentions each The remaining 13 names, including some unusual ones like King and West, are one-offs .
Co.Longford (2 entries)
Hannaford “a [sic] travelling horse dealer” – an individual, but called a tinker.
Crowley an individual tramp
Brody tells story of local man John Brody who, while stationed elsewhere in Ireland with the Irish army, married a tinker girl. His family disowned him so he moved in with her people and still frequents the area. No indication of his age, how long married, or if they’d any family. This surame does not appear to have become established.
2. [unclear where in Co. Longford]
Hannify [sic] winter in Ballymahon; name twice mentioned, and spelled this way both times.
O’Leary winter in Ballymahon
McDonagh winter in Ballymahon
Joyce winter in [Albtons?] – different place, anyway
Ward travel widely especially to the West. Much rivalry with Nevinses.
Nevins much rivalry with Wards
Twelve surnames are listed but three of these are attributed to individual non-Traveller men, only one of whom “married in”. Joyce and O’Leary are the only surnames mentioned in both entries. The Wards and Nevinses are associated through mutual rivalry.
Co.Offaly (2 entries, only one of which lists surnames)
1. Coolestown– no names given
(This is the sole entry in which the surname ”Green” is listed.)
Co. Galway (8 entries)
1. [location in Co. Galway unclear]
Mongans local group
Ward local group
McDonagh local group
Smith Protestant group
2. [informant resides Moate Co. Westmeath, writing re: in Co. Galway]
Maughan but they are known locally as “Cléirigheas” (Clearys)
Ward most common
5. Ballinasloe (again)
Ward most numerous. married in with Cawleys, Maughans. “Wards and Maughans fight”
Donovan less frequent
Lynch less frequent
Birmingham less frequent
6. [location in Co. Galway unclear]
Mannion “keep to much smaller areas than tinkers” – typically 15 mile radius of Tuam. no indication of why they’re separate from “tinkers”
Delaney ditto re Mannions
Sheridan Gypsies. visit in summer in connection with local fair or en route to Galway races.
8. [location in Co. Galway unclear]
Cashman or Cash “The Piper” well known in Connemara. Large- scale buyer of donkeys and ponies (up to 80 at a time) to be sold in Leinster – not, therefore, solely a musician, despite the nickname.
Fourteen surnames noted, with Ward (six mentions), Maughan (four) and McDonaghs (three) the most widespread, and another two (Mongans and Furey) with two mentions each. The remaining nine are one-offs. Note that the Ballymoe respondent lists three names followed by “etc.”, and that the Sheridans are classed as “Gypsies” while the Smiths – identified as Protestants – are not. The Wards are noted as intermarrying with the Cawleys and Maughans, but as fighting only with the latter.
(9 entries, 3 of them unclear, + 2 references in local newspaper, 1952)
Barrett “Taffy” Barrett (who made and sold taffy at fairs) was not properly a tinker at all but the son of landless peasants who married a tinker (her name not given).
Maughan main Mayo name
Sheridan “of late”
Delaney “of late”
Coffey “of late”
2. Ballyhaunis(all named groups present within a 10-mile radius of Ballyhaunis) Ward oldest group and best known locally, for generations.
[Castlebar district court Connaught Telegraph 21 June 1952 covers a Collins arson case – son accused of burning out his own father.]
3. [location in Mayo unclear]
4. Baile Gaelach
5. Mayo/Galway (3 parishes, border area)
Collins “sometimes frequent this area”
McDonagh “sometimes frequent this area”
Mochans and Wardes “travel roughly from Galway city, Tuam, Ballinrobe, Rilmaine, Hollymount, Claremorris, nearly an area of 50 miles. They don’t seem to appreciate any other clans. If such come there is an odd row. But as a rule the strangers move off.”
“These are called tinkers and are regarded as distinct from Gypsies [sic] who are often dealers in horses and make wickerwork articles.” [but no surnames given!]
[Ballinrobe: Connaught Telegraph June 28 1952 re two Cleary brothers from Ballinrobe.]
7. Ballina(99 year old informant – born a decade after the beginning of the Famine!)
[text in Irish but gives Traveller surnames as Béarla, implying that this is the version by which they are known ]
He observes: “Na tincéirí a thigeanns chun an cheannntar seo sí an béarla an teanga amháin a labhruigeann [sic] siad. Níor labhair siad ariamh aon fhocal gaedhilg…” [Translation: “English is the only language that the tinkers that come to this area speak. They never spoke a word of Irish…”]
Prior to introduction of roads 100 years ago, there were only individual pedlars – tinker families, with draft animals, are relatively ‘new’ in the area.
Maughan “seem to be indigenous to Connaught”
Casey “seem to be indigenous to Connaught”
Neville “of Cork”. Sole family named in a reference to “other minor tribes”.
“They never participate in public amusements such as athletic sports, football, dances etc. They are not, of course, popular with the people, and the aversion is equally reciprocated by them. The latter are not of Irish homogeneity. They are a distinct people following their own exclusive way of life. In this respect they are somewhat on a par with the red Indians of America , with the difference that while the latter are aboriginal, our Irish Tinkers are supposed to be the descendants of an alien tribe. Certainly, whatever their origin or history, our tinkers seem to be a very ancient class in the Irish community.”
“The gypsies are a different race of caravan-dwelling hawkers and fortune-tellers.”
9. [location in Mayo unclear]
Total 19 surnames, 14 of which are one-offs. Maughan/Mochan and Collins are in joint lead (7 mentions each) followed by Ward(e) (6), Mongans (5) and McDonagh (4). Lists concluding with “and co.”, references to – but no names of – “Gypsies” seen as distinct from “tinkers”, and so on, are frustrating, indicating that this information is anything but exhaustive.
Co.Sligo (2 entries)
1. Teampall Buidhe
Maughan local; N Mayo, Tineragh Co. Sligo
Moloney local; Sligo & Leitrim
Ward local; N Sligo, Tineragh, Co. Donegal
Coyle local; N Mayo, Sligo
McDonagh local; Sligo & N Connacht generally
McGinley local; Sligo, Leitrim. Donegal
Cawley local; Roscommon, S Sligo, Tineragh
Twelve surnames in all, only three of them (Cawley, McDonagh and
Ward) mentioned in both entries .
Co.Leitrim (2 entries)
Informants in this smallest of counties treat it as part of a larger (northwestern) region.
1. [location in Co. Leitrim unclear]
McDonagh Leitrim, Longford, Roscommon
McCawley [sic] Leitrim, Longford, Roscommon
McGinley recent arrivals
“The first two families move about through Leitrim, Longford and Roscommon. I have not heard of McGnleys until recently.”
2. Coillte Clochair
Ward intermarried, & travel, with McDonaghs
McDonagh intermarried, & travel, with Wards
Crumlish confined to Donegal. “often live in houses for considerable periods – especially around Ballyshannon.”
“The Ward and McDonagh clan [sic singular] have intermarried and to a great extent travel together. They travel large areas of Donegal, Tyrone, Fermanagh, Leitrim, Cavan, Sligo and Mayo.” [= the whole northwest quarter of the island]
: “Strange to say I do not know of any tinker who can speak Irish fluently.”
notes that Traveller presence in the locality predates the first road (1846) because an old thorn tree at their camping spot on the pre-road route is known as “beggars’ bush”.
Counties Leitrim and Sligo
This single entry covers two counties
McDonagh Galway; horse trading
Maughan (Mohan) West. intermarried with McDonaghs. tinsmiths.
Ward Donegal. wire workers. intermarried with Mulrooneys.
MacMurrough ragmen. also known as the Casógs, Old Coats
Delaney Wexford. musicians (pipers)
Mulrooney intermarried with Wards
Doherty [not listed but mentioned in passing]
All come and go through the northwest.
All are more differentiated by TRADES than by geography.
“Most of the older McDonaghs Wards and Dohertys can and do speak Irish among themselves or when so addressed.” It would be interesting to know more about the informant, especially his own familiarity with Irish, as only one other entry makes such a claim and so many others (including the very next entry) specifically note Travellers’ inability to speak this language.
Co.Roscommon (1 entry)
Ward principal local group
McDonagh less frequent but fairly common
Sweeney less frequent but fairly common
“No local tinker knows Irish.”
Nine entries, one of them unspecified
[I have noted which are Gaeltacht areas now (2007) and so certainly were in the mid 1950s]
Notes that the surnames O’Rourke, Gallagher and Boyle all suggest dispossession at the time of the Plantation.
2. [location in Donegal unclear]
This is the wordlist collected from Mrs. Stokes née Mongans, from Roscommon, passing through Donegal. The respondent notes: “The Stokes family had little of tinkers’ traditions etc. beyond the list of words enclosed.”
The respondent also lists, without locating,
Doran music, esp. piping
3. Baile na Finne Gaeltacht
[all surnames given as Gaeilge]
McGinley sole local Traveller family
6. Glencolmcille (Gaeltacht, but surnames given as Béarla)
McConnell in the past
Travel all South West Donegal from the Rosses to Ballyshannon.
Doherty largest group, with several branches.
Quinn Donegal only
McGinley Donegal only, esp W Donegal/Gaeltacht
McDonagh “ Connaught visitors” “rather too numerous for one surname” (suspects that McDonagh is a generic term for Connacht Travellers – though whether self-ascribed not indicated.
“I heard tinkers using Irish in the Donegal Gaeltacht.”
No names given. Says few Traveller families locally; “nothing to poach”!
McMahon surname of last family to visit the area
Twenty-one different surnames are given, with McGinley and (O’) Doherty most frequently cited (five times) and Mc(G)Rory and O’Rourke twice each. The remainder are all once-offs.
(four entries, one of which covers a broad border area)
Both very well known in this district. Generally travel counties Monaghan, Cavan, Louth, Meath, and Westmeath.
2. Scairb na gCaorach (Emyvale)
Cawley pass through
Power pass through
Curran pass through
Emyvale is on the direct Dublin-N Irl route. Informant says many Travellers pass through, but only these 3 families are named.
3. Clones, re Cavan/Monaghan/Fermanagh border
Cawley intermarried with Cooneys, Dohertys
Cooney intermarried with Cawleys
[Dohertys not mentioned except as intermarrying with Cawleys]
Informant spoke with 70-year-old Mr. Cawley, a native of Cavan/ Monaghan who has rarely travelled outside this area and then solely to Northern Ireland .
McCann local group
Doyle local group
Ten surnames are noted; only one of them, Cawley, is repeated, and one entry links this family with the Cooneys and Dohertys.
Co.Cavan (three entries)
1. [location in Co. Cavan unclear]
McCeann [sic] “gipsies”. Cavan, Longford, Westmeath & Leitrim. “well-to-do”
Informant differentiates between “gipsies” and “tinkers” but doesn’t explain how. The McCeanns [sic] are the sole family named, and they are identified as Gypsy.
(five surnames, ALL of them unique to this respondent!)
3. [location in Co. Cavan unclear]
Of the seven surnames noted only one, McC(e)ann, is mentioned in two entries.
(nine entries, three of which give no surnames)
Although I have put all the Northern Ireland material together, it is in fact dispersed among the rest of the Ulster material, as shown by the page numbers.
1. recorded in Belfast
McDonagh Ellen McDonagh, a 36-year-old from Sligo, gives “Traveller” as her occupation. McDonagh is the sole surname noted in this entry.
2. Ballycastle, N Antrim
(Respondent resident in Glynn Co. Armagh)
Hunter “One group which I know [!] has several branches under the surname Hunter.” (No other entry notes this surname.)
3. Ballymena Co. Antrim
No surnames given
4. Hiltown Co. Down
MacMahon sole family named
5. Counties Down, Donegal, Leitrim
(Respondent lives in Co. Down)
O’Connor Co. Down
Ward Co. Down
Crumlish/Crumledge ` Co. Donegal
6. North Armagh, part of Tyrone
Are not frequented by Ts
7. Ardstraw Co. Tyrone
Very occasionally pass through; no information given
8. Various parishes in Co. Tyrone, all informants are farmers of 70+
Stokes regarded as being “the most wicked of any of the tinker tribes”
Dowd “The Dowds were also a feared tribe. It used to be said to quarrelsome children, ‘You’re as bad as the Dowds.’”
“Approximating to the tinker clans were the McGuigans and the Sharkeys. I have recorded information about these people in collections, family names etc.” – but he doesn’t explain how they “approximate”!
9. South Fermanagh
Steward [sic, d] Protestant
These families were identified as Protestant by a “gipsie” who also said they can talk all night in their own language; note that the sample vocabulary given is Irish Traveller, not Romani.
(By implication, those families not identified as Protestant are Catholic.)
Northern Irelandan alysis
There is so little information for Northern Ireland that I have put it together – and even this is imprecise, as two of the nine entries cover more than one county, including one in Connacht, albeit bordering Ulster .
Twenty-four surnames are noted; all but five of them are one-offs, and only McDonagh and Ward get as many as three mentions (Crumlish, Mahon and Stokes get two each).